A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble House Telescope picture reveals the distribution of darkish matter within the heart of the enormous galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which accommodates about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up a lot of the mass of the universe. Hubble can not see darkish matter straight. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, by which gentle from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter inside the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photos of 42 background galaxies to calculate the situation and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digital camera for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions can be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is positioned 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Know-how, House Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of recent physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been doable to detect in an experiment.

There are presently many proposals for brand spanking new experiments: geared toward detecting darkness Factor straight by their scattering from the elements of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A workforce of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with abnormal matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it doable to detect it at present and on the similar time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new variety at nighttime matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis neighborhood is searching for various darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the similar time, one would typically count on part transitions At midnight sector – in spite of everything, there are numerous extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are likely to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” mentioned Elor, the postdoctoral researcher. “Nonetheless, our HYPER mannequin reveals that part transition can really assist make darkish matter detection simpler.” in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an sufficient mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with abnormal matter, then the (precisely recognized) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe can be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nonetheless, if produced in the correct amount, the interplay can be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central thought, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay all of a sudden modifications all of sudden – so we are able to get one of the best of each worlds: the correct amount of darkish matter and quite a lot of interplay in order that we are able to detect it,” McGee mentioned.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling degree from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily evaluate letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers envision it: In particle physics, the interplay is normally mediated by a selected particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with abnormal matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and its detection operate happen by way of this medium, with the power of the interplay depending on its mass: the larger the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient in order that the correct amount of darkish matter is fashioned and later sufficient gentle that darkish matter might be detected in any respect. Answer: There was a part transition after the formation of darkish matter, by which the mass of the medium all of a sudden decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and however, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a manner that the darkish matter is straight detectable,” Pearce mentioned.

The brand new mannequin covers nearly your complete parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl nearly your complete vary that the brand new experiments are making obtainable,” Ellor mentioned.

Particularly, the analysis workforce first thought of the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be according to astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The following step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the concept of ​​transition,” McGee mentioned. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the part transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to remember, corresponding to a set quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, we’ve to systematically think about and embody a number of eventualities, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t all of a sudden result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, in fact, would not need to be the case,” Ellor mentioned. However ultimately, we had been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily evaluate letters.

extra data:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily evaluate letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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